[dAKN+00] Luca de Alfaro, Marta Kwiatkowska, Gethin Norman, David Parker and Roberto Segala. Symbolic Model Checking of Probabilistic Processes using MTBDDs and the Kronecker Representation. In S. Graf and M. Schwartzbach (editors), Proc. TACAS'00, volume 1785 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 395-410, Springer. March 2000. [ps.gz] [pdf] [bib] [Proposes symbolic techniques for probabilistic model checking and implements them in an early version of PRISM.]
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Notes: Results can be found here. The original publication is available at link.springer.com.
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Abstract. This paper reports on experimental results with symbolic model checking of probabilistic processes based on Multi-Terminal Binary Decision Diagrams (MTBDDs). We consider concurrent probabilistic systems as models; these allow nondeterministic choice between probability distributions and are particularly well suited to modelling distributed systems with probabilistic behaviour, e.g. randomized consensus algorithms and probabilistic failures. As a specification formalism we use the probabilistic branching-time temporal logic PBTL which allows one to express properties such as "under any scheduling of nondeterministic choices, the probability of phi holding until psi is true is at least 0.78/at most 0.04". We adapt the Kronecker representation of (Plateau 1985), which yields a very compact MTBDD encoding of the system. We implement an experimental model checker using the CUDD package and demonstrate that model construction and reachability-based model checking is possible in a matter of seconds for certain classes of systems consisting of up to 1030 states.